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Trade Credit: The Benefits & Risks to Contractors and Suppliers


Last Updated Oct 12, 2023

Photo of materials on a construction site

Contractors often need to find alternative ways to purchase materials for a project upfront, and one of the most common types of supplier financing options is trade credit. Trade credit accounts offer low-cost financing to contractors so they can expand their business and take on more work, allowing suppliers to increase sales and build customer loyalty. It can have enormous benefits — but it doesn’t come without risk.

Table of contents

What is trade credit?

Trade credit is an agreement between two businesses to allow an immediate exchange of goods (or services) without the immediate exchange of money. In construction, this often consists of the practice of providing building materials to contractors up front for repayment at a later date. It is essentially a 0% interest loan from suppliers to contractors, allowing them to delay payment for building materials or supplies. 

Trade credit helps contractors make larger purchases, which in turn can help them expand their business and take on bigger projects. The contractor’s goal is then to get paid by their customer before the supplier payment is due. 

For suppliers, providing building materials on credit can allow them to make larger sales. When contractors don’t have to make an immediate payment for their materials, they are able to spend more. Plus, offering credit to customers improves the chance that they’ll continue to buy from them and helps develop a relationship between the parties. 

Credit & payment terms

The amount of time that contractors have to pay their suppliers depends on several factors, including industry standards, credit risk, and the size of the sale. Most suppliers give contractors 30 days or more to make payment in full before they charge additional costs, like interest and late payment fees.

Before issuing a credit account, suppliers will prequalify a contractor by reviewing their financial records and payment history to determine their credit risk. Most suppliers have a credit policy that outlines their requirements to issue an account and details the terms of payment. Contractors with a higher credit risk may have a reduced purchasing limit, higher fees, or they may be required to pay COD (cash on delivery). 

Many suppliers offer contractors discounts to encourage early payment. Discounts are usually given when payment is made within a certain timeframe, such as 7–10 days after purchase. If payment is not received within the early timeframe, the full amount of the invoice is due within the terms of the credit agreement. Discounts allow suppliers to encourage contractors to pay early, which helps their cash flow. Contractors can take advantage of early payment discounts to increase their profits.

If payment is not made within the terms stated in the credit agreement, interest and late fees are usually assessed by the supplier. And if payment is not made by the contractor within a reasonable amount of time, these fees can start to add up.

Benefits of trade credit for contractors

Trade credit accounts allow contractors to delay payment for materials and supplies — and since they don’t have to spend the money today to get the materials they need to start a project, contractors can use their cash for other project expenses. The ability to secure trade credit can allow them to take on larger projects, earn increased profits, and further expand their business.

Trade credit is often offered with 0% interest if the balance is paid within the terms of the credit agreement. It offers contractors the money to use to pay other expenses, such as overhead costs. 

Other financing options, such as building material loans or credit cards, typically carry much higher interest fees and shorter repayment deadlines.

Benefits of trade credit for suppliers

By offering credit, suppliers allow contractors to purchase more merchandise without having to spend any money right away. This allows them to increase their sales and build a larger customer base. 

Trade credit also allows suppliers to improve relationships with contractors and build customer loyalty. By extending credit to contractors, they offer a benefit that will encourage the contractor to purchase from them in the future.

The risks of trade credit

Construction is a risky business, in part because of the payment delays and disputes common to the industry. 

If a material distributor gives a contractor $100,000 worth of materials on credit, they are taking a gamble that the contractor will earn enough cash on the project to pay it back by the time it’s due. 

Suppliers don’t want to carry all of their customer’s risk. As a result, they don’t provide trade credit to every contractor that walks in the door. Just like a credit card company, they have a process to assess a potential customer’s risk and decide whether to give them credit or not. 

Supplier tools to reduce credit risk

According to Census Bureau data, construction has one of the highest rates of business failure in any industry. Generally, cash flow problems are among the biggest drivers of bankruptcy. If a material supplier extends too much credit to contractors with cash flow problems, they can put their entire company at risk. 

A supplier’s credit manager has a number of tools to reduce this financial uncertainty. In addition to requiring a contractor to fill out a credit application, they also often take additional steps to protect their payments. In nearly all states, suppliers have the right to file a mechanics lien on the project’s property if the contractor doesn’t pay their bill. 

Trade credit has advantages — and risks

Both contractors and suppliers benefit from using trade credit. For contractors, it offers an interest-free financing method that helps them keep cash flowing on a project. For suppliers, it encourages customer loyalty and helps increase sales volume.

But the practice of extending trade credit can carry risks for companies in the lumber and building materials industry. By using payment and credit tools to mitigate these risks, material suppliers can extend trade credit safely and build lasting partnerships.


Building Materials



Written by

Dawn Killough

33 articles

Dawn Killough is a writer with over 20 years of experience in construction, having worked as a staff accountant, green building advisor, project assistant, and contract administrator. She shares fundamental green building strategies and techniques in her book, Green Building Design 101. Dawn lives in Portland, Oregon.

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